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In chapter six, Arnaudo introduces another prominent Seicento figure: Daniello Bartoli , the official historian of the Jesuit order and one of the best rhetorician of the century. Dissenting from both Kircher and Tesauro, Bartoli asserts that the heavens were not created in secrecy; they do not hide mirrors or enigma to decipher.

Together, these case studies provide a fuller understanding of the dynamics of verbal and pictorial language interplay, and can serve as methodological templates for looking at, and reading of, many other similarly complex inventions of the period. By way of summary, this is an ambitious and wide-ranging book that brings a fresh perspective to early modern Italian studies. The work seems to me original in conception, precise in goals, and methodologically consistent. It is tightly focused, thoroughly researched, and well written. The manner of argumentation is effective and convincing.

The research is up-to-date and interdisciplinary in scope. The footnotes are a rich source of additional information, expanded discussions on related secondary topics. The analyses of individual texts contain perceptive observations about textual details and insightful comparisons of situations in the texts with analogous situations in other works. The bibliography of primary and secondary sources is in itself an excellent resource that will be consulted by future researchers. It is appropriate to note that Arnaudo has contributed to his corpus of writings on the relations between optical illusions and literature several shorter pieces that have appeared in prestigious Italian and European scholarly journals.

Among them, I like to single out two earlier ones: More recently, in a first-rate essay entitled "Sul significato del giocoliere nel Cannocchiale aristotelico di Emanuele Tesauro" Studi secenteschi 50 []: The choice of the juggler simile should not surprise, if one consider the popularity of conjuring tricks in the seventeenth-century culture and the use that rhetoricians such as Cicero and Seneca, among others, had made of it.

The resulting artificial and bizarre images help the poet to create complex samples of poetic virtuosity and to generate emblems expressing philosophical, emotional, pedagogical effects. It should be added that in several other recent contributions on the same topic Arnaudo illustrates learnedly and aptly how emblems i. On the Cultures of Exile, Translation, and Writing. Through the works of major thinkers and literary authors, from Heidegger, Benjamin, Bataille, and Derrida to Kafka, Blanchot, Leopardi, Caproni, and Agamben among many others, he thus investigates the implications of a discourse on ontology and temporality which, with its discontinuities and heterogeneity, substantiates the very capacity for openness and plurality that characterizes potentiality.

Each of the four chapters relates potentiality to questions emerging from a specific topic. This reflection suggests a connection between Benjamin and Agamben, whose examination of potentiality focuses on infancy as the locus of a fracture but also a dynamics between a pre-existing linguistic mode the voice, in this case and the factuality of embodied, uttered language. In contemporaneity, Bartoloni concludes, there is no sense of exile because no clash occurs between past and present The individual is enclosed in its own self-sameness instead of opening up to the authentic communal experience that can only derive from the constructive challenges of language and thinking.

This truly comparative and interdisciplinary study deserves praise for its analysis of many voices of the Italian literary and philosophical panorama of the last two centuries some of them still neglected, such as Caproni or Virno , with which Bartoloni engages in a wider European intellectual context. Arguably, the book is most successful precisely at a local level, for its many inspiring rapprochements which, working as self-contained studies, provide original and sophisticated perspectives on key concepts of Western thought.

Chapters, in fact, are composed of numerous subsections dealing with specific topics, which at times create detours, thus reinforcing the sense of fragmentation despite the overarching motifs. Precisely because of the multiplicity of threads that intertwine in the book, a longer and more articulated conclusion would have been helpful to highlight the many implications of the overall analysis.

This is a fortiori important when one considers that the title itself, with its asyndetic and not much engaging construction and its incomplete listing it includes three of the four notions being discussed , does not reflect the complexity of the actual questions at stake, their underlying connections, and the purpose of the book as a whole. Il viaggio e le arti: Il percorso trecentesco continua col saggio di Annalisa Cipollone su Petrarca. Alla seconda categoria appartiene il Codice Vaglienti di cui una parte documenta il contributo tecnico e finanziario di Firenze alle spedizioni portoghesi.

Particolarmente stimolanti sono le tipologie di viaggio proposte: Nel secondo Trecento, in conseguenza degli aumentati criteri realistici, i viaggiatori divengono parte integrante della narrazione pittorica. I disegni dovevano documentare visivamente le campagne militari napoleoniche in Italia. Ne deriva, invece, una perversa omologazione: Chiudono il volume 24 tavole illustrative degli scritti di Marchi, Bourdua e Di Teodoro. On the Radical Critique of Political Reason.

Rather than anti-political, the unpolitical is a relativist conception which defeats the absolute distinction between political and anti-political. In fact, the unpolitical not only criticizes, but also embraces the political, as in the dialectical synthesis between the thesis of the political and the antithesis of the anti-political. As with mysticism, law turns out to be limited by its own nihilist picture of the world, contrasted to the absolutist ideal of regulation.

Political participation marked by this awareness may challenge what Severino refers to as the dominion of the nihilist project of modernity and technology Where absoluteness as boundlessness is overcome, relativity as boundness emerges. The forms of typically European political distinction and stereotypically Asian anti-political indistinctness correspond to the one force of unpolitical being, in the harmony of opposites. In overcoming the absolutism of political distinction and the nihilism of anti-political indistinctness, the unpolitical implies the relativist conception of the political and the anti-political as relative to each other, which hints at the necessity of recognizing the limits of political myths by adapting their distinctions to the circumstances, instead of leaving them unquestioned as absolute or just denying them with nihilist indifference.

These implications for absolutism, nihilism, and relativism constitute both the strength and the weakness of the analyses collected in the volume, as such implications amount to an innovative philosophical contribution, while not being made explicit anywhere in the dense argumentation. This debate leads to the definition of the political as the paradoxical oscillation between authoritarian absolutism and anarchic nihilism The unpolitical marks a significant development of radical philosophy.

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The unpolitical offers a space of relativism which is precious in the deconstruction of the absolutist and nihilist essentialism of politically founded mythical distinctions of language, class, sex, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, citizenship, health, and age, at the hybrid convergence of global and local politics characterizing the decades following the world and cold wars. Questo tipo di studio deve necessariamente incentrarsi su un approccio sistemico e metodologico che consenta di spiegare e di interpretare le interrelazioni determinatesi tra la letteratura di origine e quella di destinazione, anche per il tramite dei suoi sotto- sistemi e dei diversi centri culturali che apportano il loro contributo a questo particolare settore.

Differences, Deceits and Desires. Murder and Mayhem in Italian Crime Fiction. U of Delaware P, The volume includes a brief introduction, which provides an outline of the origins and development of crime fiction in Italy, and four sections, each addressing different aspects of Italian crime narrative.

Because of its intrinsic socio- political meanings, this feature has been drawing the attention of critics for a long time. Angela Barwig offers an illuminating overview of crime fiction set in Emilia-Romagna. She proves that the Emilia-Romagna case exemplifies the significance of the regional setting in contemporary Italian crime narrative. Cicioni explains that these are the first Italian crime stories addressing the issue, but they are hardly subversive. Di Ciolla provides a number of original points, but more textual examples would have given greater impact to her notable analysis.

Varied in content and approach, it is a welcome addition to the sparse literature on Italian crime fiction. Chi peregrina e vagabonda scopre il mondo in quanto natura, popoli e culture; il pellegrino si incammina per ritrovare atmosfere mistiche, guidato dalla certezza finale, identificata nel luogo di culto. La rinascita della Francigena deve scaturire dai pellegrini, come avvenne per le sue origini. La Via Cassia e la Via Francigena simboleggiano situazioni stradali differenti.

Santiago de Compostela, Roma, Gerusalemme. Lungo la Francigena si incontrano pellegrini, lungo la Cassia viaggiatori. Domenico Defilippis parla del De Neapolitana profectione, racconto di viaggio redatto nel , da Ludovico Carbone, letterato della corte estense, in cui i ricordi del viaggio reale non disdegnano il ricorso a una fonte copiosa: Lungo il tratto viterbese della Cassia, grazie al saggio di Cinzia Capitoni, conosciamo il geologo Giambattista Brocchi. Il saggio di Antonino Sole sul Discorso sopra lo stato presente dei costumi degli Italiani di Leopardi prende in considerazione quattro aspetti: La grotta del Decameron IV.

La grotta del Filocolo III. I brani selezionati non perdono il loro fascino poetico. La teoria che accompagnava e arricchiva la selezione dei testi nella prima parte del libro sembra affievolirsi; di conseguenza le interpretazioni dei brani tendono ad appiattirsi su uno stesso modello. La lunghezza dei brani verrebbe giustificata da una lettura che ne considerasse lo stile, la lingua, il ritmo e le rime, ma in questo modo lo sguardo critico sembra quasi dimenticare le ragioni formali che ne hanno dettato la genesi.

Il discorso si sposta sul concetto di melanconia. Si assiste, tramite Boiardo, Ariosto e il Tasso della Gerusalemme Liberata, a un ritorno alla natura maligna e benigna allo stesso tempo, donatrice di vita e di morte, grembo di trasformazioni alchemiche. La Bibbia nella letteratura italiana. Gli interventi raccolti seguono due orientamenti principali: Particolarmente interessanti sono i saggi che, intrecciando le due posizioni appena descritte, trattano della poesia dialettale Pietro Gibellini su Belli, Claudio Costa su Trilussa e Matteo Vercesi su Noventa, Loi, Pasolini, Pierro, Zanzotto e altri poeti del Novecento.

Il testo biblico viene usato come opera di letteratura, ovvero repertorio di linguaggi e contenuti immaginativi fruiti a livello narrativo, ora riprodotti imitati adattati, ora trasgressi e parodiati. Ma viene anche utilizzato come scrittura portatrice o mediatrice del divino, come occasione per una riflessione culturale e socio-politica in cui chiesa e religione sono di volta in volta idoli o bersagli, o come contemplazione del dogma, devozione e adorazione. Johns Hopkins UP, What is there to say about a university that saw its demise five years after it was inaugurated with great fanfare?

Plenty, it seems, according to Paul Grendler, who in his newest book outlines the mostly unknown history of the Peaceful University of Mantua Pacifico Gymnasio Mantoano from its establishment in the Duchy of Mantua in to its termination in That the Gonzaga wanted a university in Mantua, even if they did not really need one since their administration, unlike, say, that in place in the republic of Venice, was mostly filled by noblemen, should not surprise.

It is well known that under these two rulers money was no objection and through the centuries they have both been loudly chastised for seemingly leading the duchy to ruin with their spendthrift ways , but it takes more than money to dream a university to life. The University of Mantua ceased to exist not because its foundations were weak, but because there were suddenly more pressing humanitarian needs for its rulers and citizens than simply intellectual ones.

It takes nine chapters chock full of details to see how a university can be willed to life. Grendler first situates the Gonzaga historically, starting with their coming to power in ; he then reconstructs the principal economic sources of income in the region: The events that set the stage for the creation of the Jesuit university were in the end serendipitous: The order had tried to found a university in other Italian cities, such as Messina, Catania, and Macerata, but had been successful only in Parma, where they were able to establish an institute of higher education under the sponsorship of Duke Ranuccio Farnese.

In Mantua they typically chose to teach humanities, mathematics, philosophy and theology. This constituted half of the offerings of any university; the other half was usually filled with lay appointments. With their hiring of Giacomo Antonio Marta, who taught civil jurisprudence, and Fabrizio Bartoletti, who taught medicine, the Gonzaga could respectably claim to have mounted a good academic curriculum not only for local Mantuan residents and a variety of scholars coming from other cities in the peninsula, but especially for German students, who constituted at the time the most conspicuous foreign natione, as the various occurrences of their active presence in the universities of Padua and Bologna demonstrate.

Ferdinando had familiarity with Jesuit universities, having studied in Ingolstadt, and proceeded to negotiate with them on endowment and housing, while implementing a system of taxation to support the new academic efforts. The search for outside professors was painstaking, since less than a handful of the most famous academic stars of the time were available to move to Mantua.

But Ferdinando had some luck, for Marta was at the forefront of his field, and Bartoletti proved a superb choice — he is known today as the first physician to identify lactose, to treat gout properly, and to discover and describe the affliction known as angina pectoris. When it started to function in November , the new university had twenty-nine professors, some filling the ordinary and some the extraordinary positions.

Eleven of them taught law, eight taught medicine and ten were Jesuits, and this made the Pacific University middle-sized, as large as its counterpart in Rome and Turin. Two hundred and thirty two students matriculated during the first year, along with perhaps fifty more not officially registered, but attending classes nevertheless. Ferdinando also added lessons by the famous botanist Zenobio Bocchi on medicinal plants, given in the Orto Botanico. In The University of Mantua Grendler not only offers a precise, learned discussion of what it takes to put together the administrative, financial and intellectual package that makes a university operative and thus the book is a must in fields such as history and education , but he also provides the piece missing in his previous wide-ranging, excellent exploration of early modern higher education in The Universities of the Italian Renaissance It then argues that in the work of foreign-born writers e.

The two articles that follow provide a focused examination of Italian writers of frontier areas. Prescott and Arnold van Gennep, but it gives a convincing explanation of the transitional existence of the people of Istria. Fisher then proceeds to present two non-canonical Triestine authors, Carpintieri and Faraguna.

Their co-written works give voice to an additional layer of identity within the culture of Trieste by representing a proletarian underworld in triestino, istro-veneto, and dalmato dialects. Italy and Ireland Compared. While in Ireland, the experience of immigration is subject to many forms of remembrance, in Italy it tends to be repressed. Nevertheless, since both cultures shares similar anxieties towards present-day migrants, neither the memory nor the repression of an immigrant past is a guarantee of hospitality.

The remainder of the essays is devoted to migrant voices. She provides a survey of migrant voices before focusing on Jadelin Gangbo.

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The article by Luana Ciavola is the only contribution devoted to the representation of identities in cinema. Ciavola argues that in the films Fame chimica, Cover Boy, and Riparo, immigrants and natives are made to occupy the same shared space, thereby suggesting how economic instability and social alienation have turned Italians into others.

This is an interesting and timely volume but might have benefited from a thematic subdivision into two or three sections. Nevertheless, the volume retains its cogency and is a valuable addition to discussions of Italian identities. Journal of Italian Translation 4. First published in , the Journal of Italian Translation continues to appear twice a year April and November with admirable regularity.

The two issues under review present the expansive range of approaches that readers have come to expect: Of these, six are common to both, namely: From the outset, one of the attractive attributes of this journal dedicated to the translation of literary works from and into Italian-English has been its parallel text format. Indeed, Italian dialects are well-served in these two issues: The section dedicated to Poets of the Italian Diaspora Switzerland in the Fall issue offers a trilingual presentation of dialect poems by Saro Marretta Sicilian and Leonardo Zanier Friulian with the English version as the parallel text and what seems to be a fairly literal Italian translation at the bottom of the page.

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The effort to preserve and increase the audience for literary works in dialect is laudable, but for future issues some consideration should be given to a more consistent approach with regard to which texts are presented in trilingual vs. In the instances where notes on the translation are provided, these are usually excellent expositions of self-reflexive practice, and both new and experienced translators and scholars would benefit from having more such insights into the art and craft of literary translation. Rozier has, it seems, opted to convey meaning rather than effect.

By contrast, the poetry translations are much more engaging overall. Arguably, translation of poetry should always motivate two kinds of fidelity: Due to space constraints, two examples will need to suffice: The Johns Hopkins UP, Chapter 1 sets out the parameters within which Venice competitively negotiated among multiple and shifting political authorities in the Mediterranean to found its empire. First listed among the circuits on which such negotiation could be conducted are patronage, family connections, and the judicial system.

To these and yet other extra-institutional means were added diplomacy, inheritance, purchase, voluntary submission — and military force, most often as a threat of compulsion leveled at future dependencies such as the towns and islands of the Dalmatian and Greek coasts, Cyprus, and Crete, the last-named always something of an exception. Venetian rule was promoted as a bulwark against the Ottomans, as well as for being both just and stable.

This pattern created tension within the patriciate at home and generated complaints not only of the monopolization of office but also of abuse, often for personal gain. The most prestigious offices went to the already experienced and powerful, lesser offices to needy nobles. Chapter 3 follows this thread of private interest as it could be furthered by public duty. Legislation was intended to prevent associations in the colonies that could lead to conflicts of interest but seems to have been routinely disregarded.

In Chapter 4 the judicial system is at the focal point. Not only a forum for decision-making, it also promoted negotiation and thus compromise. Venice appeared an impartial arbiter of cases brought from overseas but the possibility of multiple appeals to decisions amounted to an ongoing negotiation with subject communities. This powerful but flexible tool even allowed less well-born individuals to bring forward their concerns. These might be equated to a slush fund for contingency spending. While grazie certainly furthered the overall objectives of the maritime empire they also worked at cross-purposes to some of its institutions, e.

The Venetian governors had a crucial role as mediators between the center and the periphery. But acquiring the influence to do this via networks of private influence and patronage led to charges of malfeasance. Chapter 6 examines instances of denunciation and investigation. Rebellion and protest arose after decades of high taxation, constant war, and Ottoman piracy. Two popular early sixteenth-century uprisings are detailed, on Lesina Hvar and on Crete. To the end, negotiation and appeal were as important as military solutions. In particular, accommodation with the Turks became a primary objective.

The work is completed by two appendices. Appendix B contains genealogical charts of families prominent in overseas office-holding. Very full documentary notes are followed by lists of archival and published sources, and secondary literature. The index is dominated by personal names but excellently covers the chief topics, often singling out specific institutions and the ways in which they were manipulated and circumvented.

The administration of this empire and the destinies of its administrators are unusually well documented for the time period under consideration, but the immediate dynamics surrounding these historical facts — the plot as distinct from the players — are often difficult to discern, so that the study is marked by a plethora of exemplification from which it is hard for the reader, as it must have been for the author, to rise to a higher level of abstraction and formulate more encompassing hypotheses and theory.

Nonetheless, the book offers a most readable account of the often competing dynamics among the Men of Empire and the formal institutions of the Venetian Republic. The Language of Castroreale and Its Territory. Few islands have played a greater, or even comparable, role in history over long spans of time […]. Con delle pennellate fresche e veloci, i due poeti riescono a dare una visione panoramica intensa e personale della loro terra.

Mentre si legge, ci si sente davvero a Castroreale. Rao riporta qui il testo originale usato dai primi anni del fino ai nostri giorni, insieme ad una fedele traduzione in inglese, un copione con ventiquattro personaggi. Dizionario di italianismi in francese, inglese e tedesco. Il DIFIT si avvale di una bibliografia imponente, dalle fonti lessicografiche classiche a quelle online, senza tralasciare gli studi settoriali. XII, laddove viene preso come esempio il nome Campari: Si tratta, dunque, a mio parere, semplicemente di stabilire se ci sia un italianismo di fatto o meno.

Martinez Su alcuni italianismi nella stampa femminile francese, nel volume curato da L. Un altro caso riguarda alcuni termini della danza provenienti da un contributo di R. Trovato, Le parole della musica, Firenze, Qualche parola, infine, sulla provenienza regionale di alcuni italianismi recensiti.

I miti venatori nella letteratura italiana. Gli autori studiati sono dunque quelli centrali per la tradizione: Egli ne analizza puntualmente il formarsi e stratificarsi delle significazioni in varie opere. La lettura di alcune opere iconografiche dedicate a Atteone ed Adone conclude il capitolo sul secolo del barocco Scenes from Italian Convent Life.

Weaver sugli spettacoli allestiti nei conventi. Il volume antologico presenta testi di varia tipologia, in italiano con traduzione inglese, che venivano rappresentati nei conventi, ma non solo. Questo lavoro si propone come un utile e importante strumento di studio corredato da saggi che illustrano il contesto storico, sociale, letterario e teologico dei rari testi editati.

A questo saggio, non accompagnato da alcun estratto dalla Santa Domitilla, seguono, con notevole salto cronogico — dal Quattrocento al Seicento — ma non logico, estratti dalla Rappresentazione di Santa Cecilia Vergine e Martire della benedettina Cherubina Venturelli badessa del convento di Amelia, in Umbria, dal al , preceduti da una breve ma dotta e particolareggiata nota di Karolina Bandurski.

La Fabbian si concentra sui cinque sensi e su come essi venivano classificati e considerati nei secoli passati. Daniela Pastina cura invece, con breve nota storica iniziale, la Commedia di Nannuccio e quindici figliastre di suor Annalena Odaldi La Hillman individua nella traduzione delle Vitae philosophorum curata dal religioso veneziano Giovan Felice Astolfi ed edite nel e nel la fonte di suor Clemenza Nenci, autrice del testo e di cui poco sappiamo se non che era una benedettina del convento di San Michele a Prato.

Infatti, oltre allo sposalizio di Iparchia, si narra anche di Ardelone ed Ermilia e degli ostacoli al loro matrimonio. Courtney Quaintance — che ritiene che la Pozzo abbia attinto al De voluptate di Lorenzo Valla, inserendo sue varianti — edita ottimamente questo raro testo, che viene riportato per intero. La cattedrale di Cremona. Genesi, simbologia ed evoluzione di un edificio romanico. Biblioteca statale di Cremona e Rotary Club Cremona, Analogamente, per illustrare il significato allegorico della cattedrale cremonese utilizzando un antico testo del vescovo di Cremona Sicardo circa , la Cronica, Zanetti non si sofferma tanto sulle caratteristiche che emergono dallo studio di quella particolare cattedrale, ma sui tratti allegorici che Sicardo attribuisce a tutte le chiese cristiane: Queste prime cento pagine, comunque, sono strutturate con precisione e hanno riferimenti a una bibliografia intelligentemente selezionata.

Le cento che seguono, poi, appagano in pieno il desiderio di conoscenze specifiche e approfondite. I lavori della cattedrale si protrassero per secoli il rosone della facciata ovest fu eseguito nel , la scalinata della facciata nord risale al , la facciata meridionale fu conclusa nel , la conclusione dei lavori fu celebrata nel Tutte queste osservazioni di Zanetti sono illustrate da cartine dettagliate e da foto che le confermano in modo puntuale. Nella prima Annalisa Gobbi studia la caratterizzazione dei materiali lapidei che rivestono esternamente la cattedrale di Cremona, fornendo a sua volta foto che documentano con esattezza le sue conclusioni.

In Donne sciolte, Irene Zanini-Cordi skillfully analyzes figures of abandoned women in Italian literature across centuries. The key question is if these women are condemned or liberated. Taking as models mythological heroines from Greek legends, Zanini-Cordi explores four different archetypes of abandoned women: Zanini-Cordi wants to give a voice to abandoned women, who have been neglected by critics in spite of their constant presence both in mythology and literature. She argues that although the abandoned woman is generally described in terms of impotency, immobility, and mourning, ironically she often becomes more active and independent after being abandoned.

Ultimately, she is forced to find herself a new identity. The weakest of abandoned women is Ariadne, who often becomes paralyzed by heartache. In Metamorphosis Ariadne transforms into a constellation, whereas the seduced and abandoned Olimpia manages to re-enter society through marriage. Consequently, her existence is characterized by silence and paralysis. Both works portray widows who have acquired sexual freedom and financial independence, which is why they represent a threat.

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Preferably, these women should re-marry soon in order to establish the patriarchal order of society, from which they have momentarily managed to escape. Thanks to her somewhat autonomous status, Rosaura can at least choose her future husband out of four candidates. Her choice is, wisely, based on character. Berenice takes one step further: Instead of a husband, she prefers long conversations in good company. She clearly defies the rules of society. Italian Bookshelf According to Zanini-Cordi, the female seducer is undoubtedly a creation of male fears.

As the author emphasizes: She is beautiful, intelligent, dangerous, and vindictive. She is a good actress with magical skills. Her sexuality is a threat to masculinity, which is why she has to be abandoned for good. Tragically, her re-integration into society is impossible. She also suffers from the famous female malady, hysteria. Rather than being attracted to Fosca, Giorgio is repulsed by her. Fosca manages, however, to seduce him with her lovely voice. Because she is unloved and abandoned, in the end her destiny is even more tragic: Abandoned by Ulysses, Circe develops a passion for writing.

Zanini- Cordi concludes that the pain and suffering caused by abandonment offer this female character the possibility to enter into a symbolic transitional space and time. Finally, we encounter a modern female character, Olga, who does not break down in crisis. Initially, Olga is portrayed in the traditional female roles of a wife and a mother. However, over the years Olga has somehow lost herself by living solely for others. In the end, Olga finds herself a new identity, without giving up motherhood. As Zanini- Cordi concludes: As a daughter of Medea, Olga represents a new generation of abandoned women created from a feminine point of view.

As Zanini-Cordi accurately proves in Donne sciolte, women writers, such as Petrignani and Ferrante, depict female characters that are no longer imprisoned in the stereotypes of abandoned women traditionally portrayed by their male counterparts. Like Olga, who falling to the bottom experienced the terrifying vuoto di senso, they take flight by taking charge of their lives. These women become donne sciolte, who in their search for identity assume a fluid way of being that permits them to survive in a male- dominated world.

As promised, in Donne sciolte she has successfully managed to give a voice to abandoned women who, at last, become liberated. Volgarizzamenti e tradizioni discorsive nel Trecento italiano. In fact, Albesano reminds the reader that we still have more than four hundred manuscripts of the Latin text of the Consolatio, copied from the ninth through the fifteen centuries, as well as many translations, commentaries and imitations. Second, her study offers a better understanding of a critical issue, the medieval translations of ancient and contemporary works, a matter that merits greater study.

To understand the real influence and penetration in cultural contexts of important works such as the Consolatio and many others , we cannot underestimate the role and function of translations. In other words, without ignoring the direct knowledge of the original works by medieval authors and scholars, we also need to acknowledge the fact that the easiest and likeliest way to know ancient and foreign literary works might have been through their translations.

Of the eight full translations and five partial translations completed in Italy in the fourteenth century, Albesano considers the four in her book. First and foremost is the translation by Alberto della Piagentina, in which the original alternation of poetry and prose is fully respected. There are 44 different extant manuscripts of this translation, which was composed between and by della Piagentina while in a Venetian jail. Concerning scholarly familiarity with the translation, Albesano dedicates less attention to this translation, and points out primarily the relevance of the adaptation of the metrum used by Alberto.

The metrum employed by Boethius, typical of the classic elegiac tradition, becomes here the new terza rima, that will also be employed later by other medieval and Renaissance poets as a rendition of modern elegy We still have eight different manuscripts of this translation Next, we have the translation of the Dominican Giovanni da Foligno,composed before , of which seven manuscripts remain Last of all, Albesano studies an anonymous translation of the Consolatio, written in Italian-Venetian and preserved at the public library in Verona, ms.

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It is interesting to note that it is based on a French translation in prose, preserved in the ms. As Albesano argues, the translation was probably made by a Northern Italian who had already translated the Consolatio into Italian; its language is also a sign of the circulation and fame of the Consolatio in peripheral parts of Italy such as the Venetian region These last three versions are characterized by many religious insertions especially in chapters XXXV and XXXVI of the original and by a profound structural reorganization of the original work, in order to emphasize the moral and didactic purpose of the Consolatio For instance, Albesano argues, the way in which the three authors connect prose to poetry follows the style of presenting exempla in sermons, because images taken from the parts in poetry sections of the Consolatio are explicitly used as illustrative stories of the theological and moral concepts expressed in the narrative sections.

As it appears, the text of the Consolatio is assimilated to the alternation of rationes and exempla commonly employed in the sermons by Dominican preachers The systematic and drastic reduction of biographical details and historical and mythological references in the original text moves in the same direction.

Adriana Zarri

In the Italian-Venetian translation, for instance, the moral illustrative purpose of these stories — the condemnation of a vice or the illustration of a virtue — is even introduced by a moralisatio, often repeated at the end, to highlight their moral function. The mythological stories most modified in this way are the myth of Orpheus meter 12, book 3 , Ulysses and Circe meter 3, book 4 , Agamemnon, Ulysses and Polyphemus, Hercules meter 7, book 4 , and the story of the emperor Nero meter 6, book 2 Etica e teologia nella Commedia di Dante: Atti del Seminario Internazionale, Torino, Ottobre Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Justice then is to return the universe to its intended state of ordered harmony.

Alongside this critical reflection, she views the Commedia as a story of metamorphosis and development towards a state of human perfection which can only come to fruition within a society. The argument then shifts to detailing the epics of Statius and Lucan and pointing out the cyclical nature and inevitability of vendettas and civil war. Although initially confusing in terms of argumentation, this essay proves exciting in its completion and demonstrates a harmonious and broad reading of Dante in this context.

This essay is a thorough analysis of a well known scene, and, although not ground-breaking in its content, it is nonetheless interesting and engagingly argued. The essay opens with a brief tracing of the manuscript history of the Commedia, before moving onto the main focus on the commentary tradition and in particular the commentary of the so-called Anonimo Fiorentino.

While interesting and informed in its own right, its striking difference in terms of approach makes this essay something of a surprise at the end of what is otherwise a collection rooted in deep textual and literary analysis. The Reggimento was intended, quite simply, to perform the same function for women. Amor and Curialitas direct the author to transcribe these lessons for the benefit of those who were absent. The nearly one hundred documenti delivered by the figura docens are organized according to twelve allegorical female characters: Until now, the only unabridged version of the Documenti was that of Francesco Egidi Roma: Like Egidi, Albertazzi chose A as his primary exemplar: Abbiamo rinunciato ad elencare le variazioni grafiche A: Albertazzi has regularized but not modernized spelling, capitalization, accents, punctuation, yod representation y and j and the use of the cedilla.

B, which Egidi chose to include in his edition as woodcuts. Albertazzi, however, has included the much more polished, Giottesque versions of ms. A in full color. Each of these images is presented at the beginning of the passage dedicated to its corresponding allegorical personage, which is extremely helpful because, as Egidi himself had pointed out in an article in , the colors are of great importance to a proper understanding of the underlying symbolism. Albertazzi has made significant corrections to the text, including those proposed in by Maria Cristina Panzera, and changed what had been the traditional mode of graphical representation.

Albertazzi has also elected to separate all the Latin glosses from the poetry and to place them into the second volume. Both volumes provide an index of names and a breakdown of rhyme schemes. All things considered, this new edition is far more useful than its predecessor and will undoubtedly become the new standard. Maney Publishing for the Society for Italian Studies, After a rapid but engaging tour through Donati family history, Boitani gives three close readings of the appearances of Donati family members in the Commedia: These readings create concentric circles of reference for each passage, connecting it to different theological contexts, to different themes in the Commedia, and to different traditions of intellectual writing ranging from Augustine to John Clare.

The third lecture is a culmination more than a conclusion. It is the most expansive of the three sections: Boitani suggests more than he spells out: Le cento novelle contro la morte: Giovanni Boccaccio e la rifondazione del mondo. The work consists of four chapters and has essentially a twofold value. On the one hand, it offers a thorough yet concise background on the Black Death.

On the other hand, Cardini enriches the general field of Boccaccio scholarship by carefully examining the effects of the plague on Florentine society vis a vis the brigata through historical documents and ultimately through consideration of a couple of exemplary novelle. He begins by sketching the historiographical information on the Black Death and noting the two different schools of interpreting the nature of the fourteenth century: According to the author, the letter is fully deserving of attention alongside the Decameron for its simple, efficacious and dramatic beauty.

All the while, Cardini skillfully indicates other potential scholarly avenues that might yield fruitful research for students of Boccaccio. However, Cardini goes as far as to express the meal of the falcon and their convivial union in terms that verge on the parodic in a day dedicated to happy endings through matrimony: Ultimately, he concludes, the ten young people return home having found their personal and comunitaria salvation. Cardini then makes the valid and necessary point that the impianto teologico to which he alludes does not exclude other interpretations. In this way, the door is left open for readers of his work and the Decameron to follow the numerous historical and literary leads indicated by Cardini along the way and to pick up on intimations made or missed opportunities found throughout the somewhat restricted viewpoint of a handful of referenced novelle.

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Schooling in Bergamo and the Venetian Republic, U of Toronto P, In this thorough, well-researched book, Carlsmith guides the reader through one hundred and fifty years of educational practice and reform in Bergamo. In this part of the world, the years represent a key period in history, one during which humanists introduced a new kind of pedagogy. Furthermore, it suffered from an undeserved and distorted reputation as an illiterate town. Studying the aims and goals of education, the skills both parents and rulers wished to impart on their children or their subjects provides a window into the dominant values and concepts in a society.

He aims to break new ground by using a holistic rather than narrow approach to the history of education by examining several kinds of institutions that provided educational opportunities and provides meticulous details available through case studies and microhistories of these institutions. Around the commune of Bergamo began to sponsor public instruction. Prior to this date, education was controlled by the nobility and the Church. The commune wanted to increase the number of literate bureaucrats, merchants and clergy and was willing to experiment with a wide variety of choices.

Carlsmith also examines the role of law schools from to in his first chapter. Brotherhoods, companies, consortiums, and sodalities were all names given to voluntary associations of laymen who lived by certain rules and performed good works. Other charitable organizations also founded schools, hired teachers and offered scholarships, subsidies, and other forms of economic support for education.

Their level of support ranged from firewood and sacks of grain to multi-year scholarships. During this period, the Church sought to re-establish its dominance in education, casting a wide net to teach reading, writing and the rudiments of Christian faith. The diocesan seminary, on the other hand, provided an exclusive and rigorous orthodox education. Both institutions had to interact with the commune and had to contend with both Venetian and Milanese oversight.

The primary ministry of the Jesuits and the Somarchans was education, but the Jesuits were repeatedly rejected in the area until the eighteenth century. The Somarchans supervised orphanages and public schools. Ecclesiastical institutions did not limit themselves solely to religious education. Chapter 5 examines home schooling practices, private tutoring, and the creation of a private, cooperative academy focused on providing a classical curriculum. Historically, tutors were hired by prince and patriarchs, and humanist scholars traveled from town to town.

Few parents in Bergamo could afford private tutors, but going beyond existing institutions, elite parents who wanted a classical education for their children founded the Caspi Academy in , which aimed to provide both a religious and secular education. Case studies provide examples of methods of recruiting, hiring, and the expectations of the instructors, examples of contracts, teaching careers, and the introduction of new practices. Several illustrations, frescoes and woodcuts show education in action, reminding us that books were scarce and that lectures, oral communication, and memorization were still important components of the educational practices of the times.

Saggio di una bibliografia garzoniana. In the last forty years the work of the Regular Lateran canon Tomaso Garzoni from Bagnacavallo has been rediscovered and studied not only in Italy, but also in France, Spain, Germany and the United States. After the introduction, the text consists of three sections. The editors also include the reproductions of the title pages of the editio princeps of each text, their early modern translations and latest editions in Italian and other languages, other editions of selected works by Garzoni, and an index of the names of scholars and editors in alphabetical order.

Scholars will appreciate the plethora of information in reference to the commentaries of the two modern editions of La piazza, published in by Einaudi and Olschki. The last two topics were at the center of a debate about natural and black magic flourishing in Italy and in Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in religious, medical and philosophical milieux. Was Garzoni ready to start a new chapter in his intellectual life? It seems possible, even though it cannot be proven with absolute certainty. It is a beautifully written and thoroughly researched work that addresses the still underrepresented topic of Dante and music.

The Florentine poet lived through momentous changes in the fields of music education and performance, the biggest novelty consisting in the growing repertoire of polyphonic hymns and chants. The first chapter of the book presents the results from an impressive array of musicological studies, all converging towards a similar conclusion: According to the author, Dante might also have heard some forms of composed polyphony, like conductus and motets, perhaps also during his stay at the papal court of Boniface VIII in Ciabattoni expounds with great clarity the aural itinerary.

On a deeper level of analysis, the author identifies a system of musical references and carefully planned internal symmetries underlying the Comedy. An important tenet of medieval music theory was the necessity of a musical balance between body and soul, a sympathetic relationship, the lack of which needed to be cured with musical therapy. The musical architecture of the poem was influenced by well-established ideas of the Scholastic tradition, whose precepts conditioned both theoretical and practical aspects of music production.

The superiority traditionally attributed to vocal over instrumental music, for instance, is reflected in the Inferno through a preeminence of similes based on music instruments; one of the most famous examples is the lute-shaped character of Master Adam, whose abdomen sounds like a drum when hit by Sinon the Greek. In choosing the lute, Ciabattoni argues, Dante was well aware of its humble role among the chordophones as an instrument of Arabic origin, mostly used for popular entertainment; thus, the lute becomes a comic counterpart of the nobler cetra evoked in Paradiso in association with the eagle formed by the blessed Par.

Far from being merely a decorative element, music in the Comedy has a structural function: More simply, music is one of the means employed by Dante to get around the conundrum of having to put down in words an experience that transcends human senses. The desperate cry of a musicless soul opens the poem, like a strident anticipation of the infernal danse macabre; on the other end of the musical spectrum, the harmony formed by the angelic choirs is the greatest representation of a joy deriving from the sheer presence of God, something no words could ever fully express.

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One can illustrate the shift from a bi-dimensional to a tridimensional plane by folding a sheet of paper to form a cube; the idea of a four-dimensional structure is much harder to grasp, and yet we can somehow fill this conceptual gap through a spatial metaphor, e. Ciabattoni concludes his investigation with a chapter dedicated to the Music of the Spheres. Notes by Anthony Oldcorn. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. Likewise both translators place their English version on pages facing the original Italian, inviting comparisons between ancient Italian and modern English. The advantages to a classical background, steeped in mythology and Virgilian vocabulary, should be apparent even to the cursory reader of Dante, who according to Virgil-Character knew the Roman epic thoroughly: Sensitive to these classical echoes, allusions, and parallels, Lombardo often goes to great lengths to highlight them, which can be a bonus for the novice reader and an annoyance for the seasoned scholar see below.

Note, for example, the effortlessness of the rhymes and even an occasional hendecasyllable in the celebrated closing speech of Ulysses Inf. Five times had we seen it wax and wane, the light on the underside of the moon, since we began our journey on the main, And then a mountain loomed in the sky, still dim and distant, but it seemed to me I had never seen any mountain so high.

Three times it spun her around in the water, and the fourth time around, up the stern rose and the prow plunged down, as pleased Another, Until above us we felt the waters close. For example, Inferno 26 also begins with a rhyming of the first and third verses: Neither does Lombardo shy away from using slang terms when the original calls for it. Succinct prose synopses introduce each canto, and narrative divisions within cantos are separated by an extra line of space. Specialist readers may find it annoying when Dante is attempting to be allusive and the translator insists on being specific, especially when it means adding proper names not present in the original.

A prime example occurs in Inferno 2. The poet makes a series of allusions comparing the pilgrim to Aeneas and St. The translator removes the punch from that pivotal verse by inserting the names of Aeneas and Paul when he translates the preceding periphrastic expressions: None of these italicized names my emphasis appears in the Italian. Why are they not mentioned specifically by name until the Pilgrim claims he is neither?

Dante-Pilgrim literally is neither Aeneas nor Paul, but figuratively and dramatically he is both of them. Anthony Oldcorn, emeritus professor of Italian Studies at Brown University, compiled the urbane notes accompanying the translation. He rarely misses a biblical reference or a classical allusion in the Dantean text, whether it is to Virgil, Ovid, Statius, or Lucan. He makes excellent but sparing use of well- known twentieth-century commentators, such as Contini, Ferrante, and Freccero.

Eliot, and Seamus Heaney invariably prove enlightening. Only occasionally does the venerable Oldcorn stumble, as when he asserts, while annotating Inferno Such minor errors, however, can easily be remedied in the next printing. In sum, this highly readable translation, with its impressive but comprehensible introduction and informative but not overpowering scholarly apparatus, is destined to become a new favorite in American high schools and college campuses. The Hospital of Incurable Madness. Daniela Pastina and John W. Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Depictions of the mentally ill during the late Renaissance have never been as riveting as those presented in The Hospital of Incurable Madness.

As one might surmise, the vernacularizing of literary canonical writings would not have been well received by the Church, given the times. Nonetheless, the use of the vernacular to educate the reading public allowed Garzoni to take a few liberties. Yes, we have firewood and ice for sale at the campground, as well as other camping necessities. Is there a cancellation policy?

Cancellations need to be made 2 weeks or more prior to your arrival, in which your deposit will be refunded minus any online booking fees. Any cancellations made less than 2 weeks will forfeit any fees paid. Your journey to Washington Island begins as you drive or walk onto the ferry and enjoy a scenic five mile route over crystal blue waters with views of the surrounding islands rocky shores, lush forests, and the serenity that you're seeking in your every day life. Check out the Washington Island Chamber of Commerce website to view the ferry schedule, discover local attractions and plan your stay on the island.