Blue Mars takes its title from the stage of terraforming that has allowed atmospheric pressure and temperature to increase so that liquid water can exist on the planet's surface, forming rivers and seas. It follows closely in time from the end of Green Mars and has a much wider scope than the previous two books, covering an entire century after the second revolution.
As Earth is heavily flooded by the sudden melting of the Antarctic ice cap, the once mighty metanats are brought to their knees; as the Praxis Corporation paves a new way of "democratic businesses". Mars becomes the "Head" of the system, giving universal healthcare, free education, and an abundance of food. However, this sparks illegal immigration from Earth, so to ease the population strain on the Blue Planet, Martian scientists and engineers are soon put to the task of creating asteroid cities; where small planetoids of the Belt are hollowed out, given a spin to produce gravity , and a mini-sun is created to produce light and heat.
With a vast increase in sciences, technologies, and spacecraft manufacturing, this begins the "Accelerando"; where humankind spreads its civilization throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond. As Venus, the Jovian moons , the Saturnian moons , and eventually Triton are colonized and terraformed in some way, Jackie Boone the granddaughter of John Boone, the first man to walk on Mars from the first book takes an interstellar vessel made out of an asteroid to another star system twenty light-years away, where they will start to terraform the planets and moons found there.
The remaining First Hundred are generally regarded as living legends. Reports of Hiroko's survival are numerous, and purported sightings occur all over the colonized solar system, but none are substantiated. Nadia and Art Randolph lead a constitutional congress in which a global system of government is established that leaves most cities and settlements generally autonomous, but subject to a central representative legislature and two systems of courts, one legal and the other environmental.
The environmental court is packed with members of the Red faction as a concession in exchange for their support in the congress, as much of their power was broken when they attempted and failed to violently expel remaining UN forces early on after the second revolution of Green Mars; yet they still retained enough power to stymie constitutional negotiations.
Vlad, Marina, and Ursula, the original inventors of the longevity treatments, introduce a new economic system that is a hybrid of capitalism, socialism, and environmental conservationism. Following the adoption of the new constitution, Nadia is elected the first president of Mars and serves competently, although she does not enjoy politics.
She and Art work together closely, and eventually fall in love and have a child. Sax Russell devotes himself to various scientific projects, all the while continuing to recover from the effects of his stroke. Since the second revolution, he feels enormous guilt that his pro-terraforming position became the dominant one at the expense of the goals of Ann's anti-terraforming stance, as Sax and Ann have come to be regarded as the original champions of their respective positions.
Sax becomes increasingly preoccupied with seeking forgiveness and approval from Ann, while Ann, depressed and bitter from her many political and personal losses, is suicidal and refuses to accept any more longevity treatments. However, when Sax witnesses Ann collapse into a coma during an attempt to demonstrate to her the beauty of the terraformed world, he arranges for her to be resuscitated and to be treated with the longevity treatment, both against her will. The longevity treatments themselves begin to show weaknesses once those receiving them reach the two-century mark in age.
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The treatments reduce most aging processes to a negligible rate, but are much less effective when it comes to brain function, and in particular memory. Maya in particular suffers extreme lapses in memory, although she remains high functioning most of the time. Further, as people age, they begin to show susceptibility to strange, fatal conditions which have no apparent explanation and are resistant to any treatment.
Most common is the event that comes to be known as the "quick decline", where a person of extremely advanced age and in apparently good health suffers a sudden fatal heart arrythmia and dies abruptly. The exact mechanism is never explained. Michel dies of the quick decline, while attending the wake of another First Hundred member. Russell speculates that Michel's quick decline was brought on by the shock of seeing Maya fail to remember Frank Chalmers who was killed while escaping security forces in the first revolution upon looking at a treasured photo of him on her refrigerator.
As a result of this and Russell's own problems with memory, he organizes a team of scientists to develop medicine that will restore memory. The remaining members of the First Hundred, of which there are only 12, congregate in Underhill, and take the medicine. It works so well that Russell remembers his own birth. He and Ann Clayborne finally recall that they had been in love prior to leaving Earth the very first time, but both had been too socially inept and nervous about their chances for selection for the Mars voyage to reveal this to each other.
Their famous argument over terraforming had been a mere continuation of a running conversation they had been having since they still lived on Earth. Through the memory treatment it is also revealed that Phyllis had been lobbying to free Sax from his torturers when she was murdered by Maya.
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Maya herself declines the treatment. Sax also distinctly recalls Hiroko assisting him in finding his rover in a storm before he nearly froze to death before disappearing once again and is convinced she remains alive, although the question of whether she is actually alive is never resolved.
Eventually, the anti-immigration factions of the Martian government provoke massive illegal immigration from Earth, risking another war; however, under the leadership of Ann and Sax, who have fallen in love again following their reconciliation, along with Maya, the Martian population unites to reconstitute the government to accept more immigration from Earth, diffusing the imminent conflict and ushering in a new golden age of harmony and security on Mars.
The Martians is a collection of short stories that takes place over the timespan of the original trilogy of novels, as well as some stories that take place in an alternate version of the novels where the First Hundred's mission was one of exploration rather than colonization.
Buried in the stories are several hints about the eventual fate of the Martian terraforming program. Trans-national Corporations, nicknamed "transnats", are extremely powerful multinational corporations that first emerge in the midst century. Robinson tracks the evolution of the transnats into what he terms "metanats" metanational. These multinational corporations have grown so large as a result of globalization that they have sufficient economic power to take over or strongly manipulate national governments, initially only relatively small third-world governments, but later, larger developed governments too, effectively running whole countries.
In Robinson's future history , the metanational corporations become similar to nation-states in some respects, while continually attempting to take over competitors in order to become the sole controller of the interplanetary market.
As the Mars trilogy draws to a close in the midrd century, the metanational corporations are forced by a global catastrophe to concede more democratic powers to their workforces. Although there are many transnational and metanational corporations mentioned, two play an active role in the development of the plotline: Genetic engineering is first mentioned in Red Mars ; it takes off when Sax creates an alga to withstand the harsh Martian temperature and convert its atmosphere into breathable air. Eventually this is done on a massive scale, with thousands of types of GE algae, lichen and bacteria being created to terraform the planet.
In Green Mars , GE animals began to be created to withstand the thin Martian atmosphere, and to produce a working planetary-biosphere. By Blue Mars , GE is commonly being done on humans, willingly, to help them better adapt to the new worlds; to breathe thinner air e.
Russell , or to see better in the dimmer light of the outer planets. The books also speculate on the colonization of other planets and moons in the Solar System , and include descriptions of settlements or terraforming efforts on Callisto , Mercury , Titania , Miranda and Venus. Toward the end of the last novel, humans are taking sub-light colony ships to other stars, taking advantage of the longevity treatments to survive the trip to their destinations.
A great portion of Blue Mars is concerned with the effects of extreme longevity on its protagonists, most of whom have lived over two hundred years as a result of repeated longevity treatments. In particular, Robinson speculates on the psychological effects of ultra-longevity including memory loss, personality change, mental instability, and existential boredom. The initial colonists from the Ares who established a permanent colony. Many of them later become leaders or exemplary figures in the transformation of Mars or its new society. An American astronaut , who was the first human to walk on Mars in the year He returns a public hero and uses his considerable influence to lobby for a second mission, this time one of colonization.
Boone received a large amount of radiation on his first trip to Mars, more than the recommended dosage according to medical regulations. However, his celebrity status allows him to skirt this. On the second voyage, Boone is one of the "First Hundred" colonists sent to permanently colonize Mars. His accomplishments and natural charm yield him an informal leadership role.
The narrative then steps back to the First Hundred's voyage to Mars aboard the spaceship Ares. His ideas continue as a point of reference for the remainder of the trilogy. Boone's character portrayal is complex; in one light, Boone is a stereotypically simple, heroic figure, an everyman hero: But later in Red Mars , Robinson switches to Boone's point of view , and it is in this section that it is revealed that late in life, Boone is addicted to omegendorph, a fictional drug that is based on endorphins in the human brain.
In addition, it reveals that at least some of his seeming simplicity might simply be an act designed to further his political goals. Overall, Boone is presented as larger-than-life. Head of the American contingent, he is Machiavellian in his use of power. However, his cynicism is later shown to be a form of self-defense; Chalmers is at least partly driven by a hidden idealistic side.
Early in the voyage to Mars, he becomes sexually involved with Maya Toitovna, the leader of the Russian contingent of the mission. During the second half of the voyage, Toitovna becomes involved with Boone. Already bitter that Boone became the first to walk on Mars instead of him as they were both candidates for the mission and that he was allowed to join the colonization trip despite his manipulations, Chalmers further despises Boone because of Toitovna's affection.
His dislike culminates in his involvement in a plot to assassinate Boone, which ultimately succeeds and allows him to take over handling major affairs on Mars, which ultimately became his undoing as his ruthless governance and aggressive diplomatic work backfire on him during the revolution of In the final chapters of Red Mars , Chalmers flees with Toitovna and other members of the First Hundred to join the hidden colonists at the polar ice cap but dies along the way when he is caught outside their vehicle during an aquifer flood in Valles Marineris.
An emotional woman who is at the center of a love triangle between Boone and Chalmers, she begins as head of the Russian contingent. Arthur and I have been laughing our arses off while writing it. Just like the old days. Matthews confirmed his involvement in the musical in July From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sitcom itself.
The 5th Wave (series)
For its eponymous lead character, see Father Ted Crilly. For other uses, see Craggy Island disambiguation. Graham Linehan Arthur Mathews. Geoffrey Perkins Lissa Evans. The London Studios County Clare. List of Father Ted characters. List of Father Ted episodes. Graham spent a lot of time listening to the Pixies and watching Taxi Driver. When I knew him first, it was like he'd never been outside the house, except to go to see Star Wars films, so his influences were never that Irish, whereas I grew up in the country He did a show called The Glen Abbey Show , which was very funny.
So I was always aware of the strangeness and madness of Irish things. Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 15 February Twitter has made me". Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 10 March Hannon offered a choice of tunes to the producers; his personal preference was for "Woman of the World".
Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 1 July In Honour of Peter Verdonk. British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 11 November Sheamus has another stab at explaining Father Ted to John Cena". Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 21 April The Peep Show duo's new pain game".
Retrieved 4 April Russians have warned Ardal O'Hanlon: Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 25 April Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 20 January What we have learned from 30 years ago". It's the Father Ted fest". Retrieved 5 January Retrieved 3 January Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 31 December Retrieved 17 February Prince Charles was once made to stand up for Ben Keaton".
She is seventeen years old and is described as a short, strawberry-blonde girl with average features. Evan Walker - a farm boy from rural Ohio. All of his family and girlfriend was killed in the third wave by the Red Death. Earlier in his life at a carnival, he meets Grace, who is the only person he finds to be like him, an Other.
He saves Cassie after she is shot by an Other sniper, the "Silencer". Cassie soon finds out that Evan is actually the Silencer who shot her and is not truly human. He is described as being a tall boy, at least eighteen or nineteen years old, being very muscular with chocolate-brown hair.
Cassie also notes his soft hands. He develops strong feelings for Cassie, and so does she. Though, these feelings are strained when Cassie learns that Evan is an Other. Evan is rescued by Grace, who tries to seduce him, though, after they are attacked and Grace is wounded, he makes his way to Cassie. Grace, however follows him there. Poundcake blows up the hotel while Evan is still inside, and it is not clear if he survives. However, at the end of The Infinite Sea , he emerges from the woods to find Cassie. Benjamin "Ben" Thomas Parish or "Zombie" - the varsity quarterback of the football team at Cassie's school.
Cassie secretly had a crush on him. His family was killed during the first four waves by a group of psychotic looters. He is crushed by the fact that he ran while his baby sister was killed. He keeps a locket with a photo of her. He becomes a member of Camp Haven's makeshift army, not knowing that they are The Others though he eventually finds out , taking the nickname "Zombie".
After one of his squadmates goes crazy, or "Dorothy", Private Ringer replaces him. He obsesses with getting her to smile. Cassie describes him as overall gorgeous.
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Marika "Ringer" - a member of squad Her father was an Atheist and a chess player. He taught her how to play. Marika's father was usually drunk. Her father is infected with the Red Death and dies of the disease. Marika wandered through the wilderness before forcefully being recruited into Camp Haven's army, where she took the nickname "Ringer".
She is a replacement after Private Tank of Squad 53 went crazy, "Dorothy", and pulled a gun on his squad. Zombie is obsessed with getting Ringer to smile. She is described as having glossy black hair and mild Asian features. In The Infinite Sea , she grows closer to Private Teacup, and, after being captured, grows feelings for a recruit named Razor. Sammy "Nugget" Sullivan - Cassie's five-year-old brother. At his refugee camp, he boards a bus from Camp Haven and is recruited into its army, unbeknownst to his father's death. He joins squad 53 and friends Zombie deeply.
Sammy is not allowed to go on his squad's patrol due to his age. Evan destroys the base, though it is not clear whether he survives or not, and Cassie, Zombie, and Evan escape. He is sadistic and cruel. He survives the destruction of Camp Haven and "enhances" Ringer with the twelfth system, a piece of Other technology designed to enhance the human anatomy in ways such as strength, agility, and speed.
Vosch also tries to kill Sammy via electrocution while having Zombie and Cassie watch, though Evan managed to cut the power at Camp Haven just in time. Vosch also personally killed Cassie's father at her refugee camp.
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Grace - a Silencer like Evan. They befriended each other before the waves began. Grace saves Evan after he destroys Camp Haven. One night after one of her hunts, she tries to seduce Evan, but he attacks her and renders her unconscious, though, believing her to be dead.
Grace follows him to Cassie's group where she attacks them. The group loses her as a helicopter flies in. Private Poundcake, having taken a bomb triggered to detonate on high concentrations of carbon dioxide from Megan, he commits suicide, supposedly killing Grace. Dumbo - the medic officer in squad One of his most prominent features is his extraordinarily large ears, like his namesake. Allison "Teacup" or "Cup" - a seven-year old member of squad She is described as "the meanest seven-year-old you've ever seen" by Zombie. Teacup grows close to Ringer after the destruction of Camp Haven.
She is shot by Ringer who mistakes her for an Other. Teacup is captured alongside Ringer and Vosch uses Teacup as leverage against Ringer.
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Teacup is killed by Razor so Vosch will have no more leverage against her. Poundcake - a chubby member of squad He does not talk. While he was on a supply run, he returned to find his brother gone. On the supply run, he found only a sweet treat, his namesake, as his drill sergeant though he was "so sweet". He sacrificed himself to save the others of his group by detonating a bomb rigged to detonate on high concentrations of carbon dioxide, such as human breathe. Megan - a seven-year-old girl rescued and taken to Camp Haven. She meets and befriends Sammy on the bus they ride. Megan is, along with many other kids her age, rigged with a carbon dioxide-bomb.
She is dropped off near Cassie's group's hideout. Evan and Cassie manage to get the bomb out of her, for which they plan to use, though Poundcake detonates it to save the others.